Bifenthrin (CAS 82657-04-3) is a synthetic derivative of pyrethrins found in chrysanthemum flower extracts and is used as an insecticide. Bifenthrin is neurotoxic and targets voltage-gated sodium channels in neurons. Its low toxicity in mammals has resulted in widespread use both in agricultural and urban applications. Unfortunately, bifenthrin is highly toxic to aquatic animals including fish and invertebrates. The high toxicity of bifenthrin in nontarget organisms has resulted in bifenthrin being classified as a restricted use pesticide by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Globally, pyrethroid pesticides, including bifenthrin are used in pest control of agricultural crops including cotton in Australia, India, and China. Pyrethroids are also often used in vector control in countries such as India, Mexico, Thialand, and Africa. Bifenthrin, while not initially approved by the World Health Organization for this use, has shown promise as an effective agent for use in insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets.